2 заметки с тегом

Yamchitskogo Lane

The last of Tolvinskiy buildings, the number 5, was raised in 1895. A massive construction closed the courtyard from Yamchitskogo Lane side, having occupied the area between buildings no. 2 and no.4 along the building line.

About complex   Kanatnaya Street, 81/1   Kanatnaya Street, 81/2   Kanatnaya Street, 81/3   Kanatnaya Street, 81/4   Kanatnaya Street, 81/5   Kanatnaya Street, 81/6

Type of building: dwelling house, a building of residential complex
Style: eclecticism, Renaissance
Architects: N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Hodetskiy
Date of building: 1895
Status: local architectural monument
Other addresses: 4, Yamchitskogo Lane

Facade (from courtyard side)

General view Front facade(left-side) Front facade(right-side) Central part A fragment of the façade between risalits

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=218301489096028915799.0004d2ca0ce80455b963c&ll=46.467178,30.747667&spn=0,0&t=h&output=embed

The last of Tolvinskiy buildings, the number 5, was raised in 1895. A massive construction closed the courtyard from Yamchitskogo Lane side, having occupied the area between buildings no. 2 and no.4 along the building line. Of all the buildings, designed by Tolvinsky, the building no. 5 is stylistically closest to the original and unique manner of the architect. Many elements of the facade decoration appeared earlier and later in his other buildings in Odessa.

Facade (in Yamchitskogo Lane)

General view Central part

The building has a considerable length — 19 window axes from the courtyard side (excluding the corner risalits), and 25 — from the side of the lane (including the three axes of the main entrance staircase). The ground floors are treated with deep rustication, where, in contrast to the previous buildings, a parting of horizontal profiles in separate blocks has appeared.

Decoration details of the ground floor

Window and the rustic stone Rustic stone, a fragment Plate of the central risalit from Yamchitskogo Lane side

The windows of the first floor are flanked by broad Ionic pilasters supporting the projecting, heavy dripstones of two types — triangular and semi-circular, with massive attics.

Decoration details of the first floor

Door opening framing of the terrace over the main entrance portal Door opening framing of the terrace over the main entrance portal, capitals and dripstone dentils Terrace balustrade over the main entrance portal Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with semicircular dripstone Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with semicircular dripstone Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with triangular dripstone Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with triangular dripstone Capital of a pilaster, flanking windows Detail of the dripstone frieze Windows (wide variant) with alternating forms of dripstones Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with semicircular dripstone

Simple pilasters flanking the second-floor window were made ​​coldly and schematic. Thus, the decoration of the first floor is singled out and (in contrast) amplified by its compositional value. From the courtyard side there are two significant risalits, topped with semicircular pediments, more two risalits flank the facade at the edges, marking cut corners. The corner risalits crown simple triangular pediments.

Courtyard facade risalits

Risalit (left-side) Risalit (left-side) Risalit (left-side), a view upward Risalit of the cut corner, a view upward Risalit of the front façade, windows of the staircase

Pediments of the central risalits of the courtyard facade

Pediment of the left-side risalit Pediment of the right-side rislit with a fragmentary preserved moulded cartouche in the tympanum

Risalits on the facade plane are decorated with double Corinthian pilasters, vertical composition of side risalits is accentuated by similar single ones.

Pilasters capitals

The building is equipped with three entrances; the central portal is marked with a balcony-terrace on the first floor, enclosed by a stone balustrade. Portals of side entrances, instead of balconies, are crowned by triangular pediments.

Entrances portals

Portal of the main entrance Portal of the side entrance (right-side)

Decorative portal on the axis of the front risalit

A facade in Yamchitskogo Lane is more restrained by design: extreme window axes are marked out by risalits with triangular pediments, the facade center is accentuated by a wide risalit in 13 window axes. Its central part is occupied by semicircular windows of the main entrance, above them — a large broken pediment, which is an enlarged and simplified version of the pediments of the building no. 1. The pediment is supported by double pilasters, similar to the pilasters on the opposite facade risalits.

Risalit of the main entrance from Yamchitskogo Lane side

General view Light windows of the staircase Pilasters capitals and a pediment fragment

A main entrance hall of the building is spacious, with a thoughtful lighting and functionality. A landing of each floor is a wide corridor with a cylindrical vault, which is separated from the volume of a staircase by the three-arch arcade supported by double thin columns from independent cast iron elements.

Main entrance hall

Lobby, a view of the staircase Lobby, a view of the staircase (before the repair) Lobby, a view of the entrance door Arcade of the staircase of the ground floor Arcade of the staircase of the ground floor, a view from the lobby side Arcade of the staircase, corridor-vestibule, staircase (ground floor) Arcade of the staircase, a view of the lobby and corridor-vestibule Arcade of the staircase on the first floor and corridor-vestibule Arcade of the staircase on the first floor

The columns of the ground and first floors have fluted shafts and capitals with geometric patterns. Columns of the second floor are thinner with more abundant plant ornamentation.

Fragments of the cast-iron columns

Columns of the ground and first floors, capitals Columns of the ground and first floors , bases Columns of the second floor, general view Columns of the second floor, capitals Columns of the second floor, bases

The staircase is square in plan, railings repeat railings motif of the buildings no.2, 3 and 4, but the central element of the scroll here is the simplest and extremely austere.

Railings

Entrance flight of stairs A fragment of the stair banister A fragment of the stair banister Stair banister Horizontal banister Scroll detail

The rhythm of the three arches of each arcade echoes with three high semicircular windows, illuminating the stairwell.

Light windows

Windows of the second floor illumination windows of the lower flights of the staircase
Authentic sash of the light window, a fragment Authentic sash of the light window, a fragment Authentic sash of the light window, a fragment

As in other buildings, steps are made ​​of marble. Landings, on the contrary, — low, made ​​of concrete mosaic without ornamentation.

Staircases of side entrance halls are much cramped and lit worse, despite the fact that at the sides of the building the big semicircular windows for lighting are arranged. On the front side, they marked out by risalits and flanked by pilasters. Risalits are topped by triangular pediments.

Side entrance hall (left-side)

Lobby Lobby, a view of the entrance door Handle of the entrance door Landing of the ground floor, a view of the entrance door Landing of the ground floor, a view of the staircase Landing of the ground floor, a view from the staircase

Railings

General view A fragment A fragment Scroll detail

Window fence of the landing between the floors

General view A detail

Service stair

Balusters Central fragment of the baluster

Owing to the found proportions and the harmonious combination of volumes, the building number 5 looks very monumental and leaves an impression of good quality and reliability. Of the four buildings that were built by Tolvinskiy, it is the most successful, not only architecturally but also from an aesthetic point of view.

 

 

References and Archives

  • «Architects of Odessa». B. Pilyavsky
  • «Architecture of Odessa. Style and time». B. Pilyavsky
  • «Buildings, structures, monuments of Odessa and architects». B. Pilyavsky

Authors

At the turn of the 1880s and 1890s, Odessa was adorned with the largest at the time residential complex. According to the posthumous will of Odessa benefactor P. Z. Yamchitskiy, near the Kulikovo Field, the architectural ensemble, the scope and monumentality of which strike and today, was raised.

About complex   81/1, Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street   81/3, Kanatnaya Street   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street  81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of building: residential complex

Style:
Eclecticism, Renaissance (buildings no. 1-5)
Geometric Art Nouveau (building no. 6)

Architects:
F. V. Gasiorowskiy (building no. 1)
N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Chodetskiy (buildings no. 2-5)
L. M. Chernigov (?) (building no. 6)**

Date of building:
1885-1887 (1st stage, building no. 1)
1890-1895 (2nd stage and completion of the construction, buildings no. 2-5)
1910-е (building no. 6)

Status:
Local architectural monument (buildings no. 1-5)
Object of background building (building no. 6)

Other addresses:
9 and 11, Italianskiy Boulevard
2 and 4, Yamchitskogo Lane
1 and 3, Orlikova Lane

Photograph from the beginning of XX century guide

Pavel Zakharovich Yamchitskiy (about 1800-1882), a secretary assistant of the Odessa Commercial Court, received before 1841 a rank of the titular counselor, among other things, was engaged in charity. During his lifetime, however, he was unknown, although he made a considerable fortune and owned a house on 8, Richelievskaya Street. 1841 year became a turning point for him. September 28 his year-old daughter Varvara died, and on 3 November the same year, at the age of 22 years, his wife Maria Efimovna went away in other world because of a fever. After outliving them for forty years, Pavel Zakharovich Yamchitskiy died in Odessa, December 1, 1882 at the age of 82 years. On 2 December, after a funeral service at the Cathedral, he was buried in the Old Cemetery.

January 11, 1883, the Odessa District Court claimed to the execution of three spiritual testaments of Yamchitskiy. Among other things, he bequeathed that to the example of St. Petersburg Society of cheap apartments, a building named after his name(Pavlovskiy) was built in Odessa for habitation in it citizens of the city that matched the specified by him conditions. Besides Pavlovskiy building as Yamchitskiy wanted had to belong to the city — «an inalienable forever property of Odessa». According to the will, for the management of the construction of the building and then operation of the house, Mikhail Bogdanovich Nilus (as director) and Iona Galagan (as an assistant) were assigned. To help them the City Council was to elect two public deputies to the end of the construction. There were two more executors in the testament of Yamchitskiy — Stanislaw Dunin and Victor Sahnovsiky. By the end of 1890, Iona Galagan left his duties, but Dunin, on the contrary —fulfilled. They concerned debentures of Pavel Yamchitskiy (Nilus and Sakhnovskiy had already been dead). According to the testament, in the case of power removal from agreed executors, one of the sons of Maria Klimenko or Anna Veselovskaya, probably relatives of Pavel Zakharovich, had to be appointed instead. And so it happened: on 12 September, 1897, according to the decision of the City Council, Boris Klimenko became a director of Pavlovskiy building and his assistant — Sergey Veselovskiy. Yamchitsky bequeathed to sell his own house on 8, Richelievskaya Street and use the proceeds for expanding the complex of Pavlovskiy buildings. However, this house suffered from the fire, and Klimenko and Veselovskiy delayed the sale of the ashes for a long time, thereby preventing the city in actions under the will. The story ended with a lawsuit and lengthy assize.

Pavlovskiy houses on the map of Mikhail Diterikhs (1894)—left, and on the map of Odessa

https://maps.google.com/maps?q=46.467538,30.746602&num=1&t=h&hl=ru&ll=46.466932,30.747777&spn=0.00269,0.005681&z=17&iwloc=near&output=embed

By 1895, the construction of five of the six currently existing buildings had been completed. The largest at the time residential complex in Odessa was repeatedly mentioned in guidebooks and references of city sights. A. S. Borinevich dedicated a part of the article about the charity in Odessa, wrote to the centenary of the city and went down in the jubilee digest, released in 1894 by the Committee of City Government, to Pavlovskiy building of low-cost apartments:

«... so-called „Pavloviн building with low-cost apartments“ P. Z. Yamchitskiy left in his will, approved in 1883, a capital of 511,000 rubles (Author: In terms of today's money, this capital can be estimated at more than $ 10 million. Capital was spent partly on the construction of the complex, and in part put at interest used to maintain the buildings in proper form) [...] in order to construct a building named after his name(Pavlovskiy), „for housing in it, with the payment of money at a rate of no more than 3 percent of total income, and in exceptional circumstances and free of charge, for those Odessa citizens, mostly Christians, who are not discredited by the behavior, have settled life here, their furniture and some craft or other means for subsistence. “ The city allotted a free space of the former Dragutinskie plantations, in the amount of 3,450 sazhens: in 1885, a laying of the main building, which was completed in 1887, was made: in 1889 the second building was constructed, in 1891 — the third and in 1893 — the fourth. All three-storey houses consisted of 23 flats of three rooms each, 103 — 2 rooms and 37 — one room: in addition there were 6 shops and the apartment for administration „.

Record in the address directory (1908)

Shortly before the completion of construction, in November 1893, Public school for children living in the building was opened. Their learning, textbooks and manuals were free. At Pavlovskiy house there was a permanent physician whose services the residents of the complex could use for free. Medicines and necessary at first medical benefits patients also received free of charge from the home pharmacy at the building office. The location of schools, shops and the home clinic, unfortunately, is unknown. According to the data of the same 1893, six hundred forty-one people of both sexes lodged in the building, 32 of them did not pay for accommodation.

Photo of the early XX century, right away — the building no. 1

The first of the six buildings the building no. 1 was erected. The building is located at the corner of Kanatnaya Street and Italian Boulevard and occupies a quite complicated in plan asymmetric site. The architect F. V. Gonsiorowskiy, in fact, not only erected the building itself, but also developed a general layout for the quarter development (within the limits of Kanatnaya Street, Italian Boulevard, Orlikova and Yamchitskogo Lanes). N. K. Tolvinskiy, who continued the construction of the complex, partly followed this plan, having built four buildings on the perimeter of the quarter, saving number of storeys of the ensemble and the overall style with the building of Gonsiorowskiy. At the end of the second stage of construction under the guidance of Tolvinskiy in the middle of the block there appeared a large courtyard, which was originally planned for a small garden and placing of smaller, service buildings.

However, this area was empty for a long time, and only after more than a decade and a half, in the center of the courtyard, a large, differing from the surrounding buildings, the building 6 — four-storey parallelepiped of geometric Art Nouveau style appeared. Unfortunately, data on the exact date of its construction, as well as the author of the project are not available; however, analyzing the architectural design of the building, it can be found parallels with the work of architects L. M. Chernigov and A. Minkus.

All buildings constructed by Tolvinskiy are interconnected along the building line by one-story annexes that gives the courtyard of the complex some intimacy. Their front facades are rusticated similar to the first storeys and it has the effect of continuity and solidity of the construction.

In the courtyard a small, square in plan, construction with cut corners, raised in the tradition of „brick style“ and overlapped by a low octagonal tent roof remained. Among the versions of its original purpose, the most likely is a version of the electric substation or dovecote. However, it is — just a guess.

Construction of unknown purpose

General view Window opening

On the other side of the courtyard another interesting item survived, part and parcel of Odessa of the end of XIX century — the filling well.

Well

View from the building no.3, on the left —the building no.6, in the distance —the building no.5 General view

Pavlovskiy houses of low-cost apartments had successfully performed their functions until the revolution. These functions have not changed in the Soviet era; however, like most of the pre-revolutionary Odessa apartment buildings, the buildings of the complex were rearranged and subjected to the „compaction“. The subsequent history of houses was not violent. In 1923, at the address 2,Yamchitskogo Lane (i.e. exactly on the side of the complex with cheap apartments) 1st Maternity Hospital was located .

General view of Pavlovskiy complex with low-cost apartments (about 1917). On the left —the building no.1, on the right —the building no. 3, between them, in deep —the building no.6

In the 30 years of the Pavlovskiy houses passed the next wave of renovations, the original plan was finally broken, but its general outlines were preserved. During the Soviet period, the buildings were not repaired for years and fell into desolation, and today their dilapidated condition can hardly be called even satisfactory. However, the complex of Pavlovskiy houses with low-cost apartments is valuable not only from the architectural, urban planning and historical point of view; it is a peculiar monument of the generous charity, so typical for the inhabitants of Odessa XIX century.

Building no. 1

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 2

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 3

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 4

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 5

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 6

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

 

 

References and Archives

Authors