7 заметок с тегом

renaissance

The last of Tolvinskiy buildings, the number 5, was raised in 1895. A massive construction closed the courtyard from Yamchitskogo Lane side, having occupied the area between buildings no. 2 and no.4 along the building line.

About complex   Kanatnaya Street, 81/1   Kanatnaya Street, 81/2   Kanatnaya Street, 81/3   Kanatnaya Street, 81/4   Kanatnaya Street, 81/5   Kanatnaya Street, 81/6

Type of building: dwelling house, a building of residential complex
Style: eclecticism, Renaissance
Architects: N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Hodetskiy
Date of building: 1895
Status: local architectural monument
Other addresses: 4, Yamchitskogo Lane

Facade (from courtyard side)

General view Front facade(left-side) Front facade(right-side) Central part A fragment of the façade between risalits

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=218301489096028915799.0004d2ca0ce80455b963c&ll=46.467178,30.747667&spn=0,0&t=h&output=embed

The last of Tolvinskiy buildings, the number 5, was raised in 1895. A massive construction closed the courtyard from Yamchitskogo Lane side, having occupied the area between buildings no. 2 and no.4 along the building line. Of all the buildings, designed by Tolvinsky, the building no. 5 is stylistically closest to the original and unique manner of the architect. Many elements of the facade decoration appeared earlier and later in his other buildings in Odessa.

Facade (in Yamchitskogo Lane)

General view Central part

The building has a considerable length — 19 window axes from the courtyard side (excluding the corner risalits), and 25 — from the side of the lane (including the three axes of the main entrance staircase). The ground floors are treated with deep rustication, where, in contrast to the previous buildings, a parting of horizontal profiles in separate blocks has appeared.

Decoration details of the ground floor

Window and the rustic stone Rustic stone, a fragment Plate of the central risalit from Yamchitskogo Lane side

The windows of the first floor are flanked by broad Ionic pilasters supporting the projecting, heavy dripstones of two types — triangular and semi-circular, with massive attics.

Decoration details of the first floor

Door opening framing of the terrace over the main entrance portal Door opening framing of the terrace over the main entrance portal, capitals and dripstone dentils Terrace balustrade over the main entrance portal Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with semicircular dripstone Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with semicircular dripstone Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with triangular dripstone Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with triangular dripstone Capital of a pilaster, flanking windows Detail of the dripstone frieze Windows (wide variant) with alternating forms of dripstones Window of the courtyard facade( wide variant) with semicircular dripstone

Simple pilasters flanking the second-floor window were made ​​coldly and schematic. Thus, the decoration of the first floor is singled out and (in contrast) amplified by its compositional value. From the courtyard side there are two significant risalits, topped with semicircular pediments, more two risalits flank the facade at the edges, marking cut corners. The corner risalits crown simple triangular pediments.

Courtyard facade risalits

Risalit (left-side) Risalit (left-side) Risalit (left-side), a view upward Risalit of the cut corner, a view upward Risalit of the front façade, windows of the staircase

Pediments of the central risalits of the courtyard facade

Pediment of the left-side risalit Pediment of the right-side rislit with a fragmentary preserved moulded cartouche in the tympanum

Risalits on the facade plane are decorated with double Corinthian pilasters, vertical composition of side risalits is accentuated by similar single ones.

Pilasters capitals

The building is equipped with three entrances; the central portal is marked with a balcony-terrace on the first floor, enclosed by a stone balustrade. Portals of side entrances, instead of balconies, are crowned by triangular pediments.

Entrances portals

Portal of the main entrance Portal of the side entrance (right-side)

Decorative portal on the axis of the front risalit

A facade in Yamchitskogo Lane is more restrained by design: extreme window axes are marked out by risalits with triangular pediments, the facade center is accentuated by a wide risalit in 13 window axes. Its central part is occupied by semicircular windows of the main entrance, above them — a large broken pediment, which is an enlarged and simplified version of the pediments of the building no. 1. The pediment is supported by double pilasters, similar to the pilasters on the opposite facade risalits.

Risalit of the main entrance from Yamchitskogo Lane side

General view Light windows of the staircase Pilasters capitals and a pediment fragment

A main entrance hall of the building is spacious, with a thoughtful lighting and functionality. A landing of each floor is a wide corridor with a cylindrical vault, which is separated from the volume of a staircase by the three-arch arcade supported by double thin columns from independent cast iron elements.

Main entrance hall

Lobby, a view of the staircase Lobby, a view of the staircase (before the repair) Lobby, a view of the entrance door Arcade of the staircase of the ground floor Arcade of the staircase of the ground floor, a view from the lobby side Arcade of the staircase, corridor-vestibule, staircase (ground floor) Arcade of the staircase, a view of the lobby and corridor-vestibule Arcade of the staircase on the first floor and corridor-vestibule Arcade of the staircase on the first floor

The columns of the ground and first floors have fluted shafts and capitals with geometric patterns. Columns of the second floor are thinner with more abundant plant ornamentation.

Fragments of the cast-iron columns

Columns of the ground and first floors, capitals Columns of the ground and first floors , bases Columns of the second floor, general view Columns of the second floor, capitals Columns of the second floor, bases

The staircase is square in plan, railings repeat railings motif of the buildings no.2, 3 and 4, but the central element of the scroll here is the simplest and extremely austere.

Railings

Entrance flight of stairs A fragment of the stair banister A fragment of the stair banister Stair banister Horizontal banister Scroll detail

The rhythm of the three arches of each arcade echoes with three high semicircular windows, illuminating the stairwell.

Light windows

Windows of the second floor illumination windows of the lower flights of the staircase
Authentic sash of the light window, a fragment Authentic sash of the light window, a fragment Authentic sash of the light window, a fragment

As in other buildings, steps are made ​​of marble. Landings, on the contrary, — low, made ​​of concrete mosaic without ornamentation.

Staircases of side entrance halls are much cramped and lit worse, despite the fact that at the sides of the building the big semicircular windows for lighting are arranged. On the front side, they marked out by risalits and flanked by pilasters. Risalits are topped by triangular pediments.

Side entrance hall (left-side)

Lobby Lobby, a view of the entrance door Handle of the entrance door Landing of the ground floor, a view of the entrance door Landing of the ground floor, a view of the staircase Landing of the ground floor, a view from the staircase

Railings

General view A fragment A fragment Scroll detail

Window fence of the landing between the floors

General view A detail

Service stair

Balusters Central fragment of the baluster

Owing to the found proportions and the harmonious combination of volumes, the building number 5 looks very monumental and leaves an impression of good quality and reliability. Of the four buildings that were built by Tolvinskiy, it is the most successful, not only architecturally but also from an aesthetic point of view.

 

 

References and Archives

  • «Architects of Odessa». B. Pilyavsky
  • «Architecture of Odessa. Style and time». B. Pilyavsky
  • «Buildings, structures, monuments of Odessa and architects». B. Pilyavsky

Authors

A construction of the building number 4 began only two years later, after the completion of the third one. A long-running pause in the tandem Tolvinskiy-Chodetskiy was quite reasonable: the building was enriched by high semicircular windows; entrance halls became lighter and more comfortable.

About complex   81/1, Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street   81/3, Kanatnaya Street   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street   81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of building: dwelling house, a building of residential complex
Style: eclecticism, Renaissance
Architects: N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Chodetskiy
Date of building: 1893-1894
Status: local architectural monument
Other addresses: 3, Orlikova Lane

Facade from the courtyard side

General view General view

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=218301489096028915799.0004d2ca09bc847c84dc5&t=h&ll=46.466419,30.747594&spn=0,0&output=embed

In 1893, the construction of the building no. 4 was started. A year later, the unfinished building was still out on most maps and plans of the city, such as on a map of Michael Diterikhs only buildings no. 1, 2 and 3 were marked. The building no. 4 logically continued the development of the building line of Orlikov Lane, facing Yamchitskogo Lane by the front side. When designing houses, Tolvinsky showed a very atypical solution: to make facade from the courtyard side more plastic and showy in composition, than the front one. In general, the architecture of the building synthesizes the features of the buildings no. 2 and 3, but here the architect has introduced a new element — a high semicircular windows for lighting of the entrance halls. Subsequently, they will be applied in the building number 5. The composition of the courtyard facade is interesting, first of all, by its tectonics. The facade, with an extent of 17 window axes, is strictly symmetrical, and seven central axes, moreover, are highlighted by a massive risalit. In turn, the central axis of the risalit (where a doorway to the entrance hall, its staircase and light windows are located) is marked out by the narrow risalit with a triangular pediment.

Risalit of the central entrance

General view Upper light window Lower light window

Another two entrance halls are arranged in the side wings, and light windows — at the ends. The facade from Orlikov Lane has (in the central part) a risalit, three window axes wide.

Facade from Orlikova Lane side (front)

General view, to the right in the lane — the building number 5 Central risalit

Hoodmold corbels

Side facades cite previous buildings in composition, but here they are (due to the semi-circular windows of the entrance halls) more plastic.

Side facade

General view Stairs risalit, a view upward Windows of the utility rooms under the stairs, on the risalit axis Lower light window

The interior is well preserved, including the scroll of a handrail on the entrance flight of stairs in the central entrance hall. A detail of the central part of the handrail scroll is devoid of artistic features and represents several inscribed into each other circles. In the building number 5, it is more austere.

Entrance hall (central)

Landing of the ground floor Landing of the ground floor, vaults
Railings, general view Railings, a fragment Railings, a scroll detail Railings, a scroll detail Railings, a detail of the baluster Railings, the entrance flight of stairs, a handrail scroll Railings, a fastening of the baluster
Upper light window Lower light window Authentic window handle

Doorway to the entrance hall (left-side)

General view Canopy over the doorway

 

 

References and Archives

  • «Architects of Odessa». B. Pilyavsky
  • «Architecture of Odessa. Style and time „. B. Pilyavsky
  • „Buildings, structures, monuments of Odessa and architects“. B. Pilyavsky

Authors

After completion of the building number 2 construction in the end of 1890s, next year the laying of the building no. 3 — practically twice as big, with L-shaped layout plan, was carried out on the corner of Kanatnaya Street and Orlikova Lane.

About the complex   81/1,Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street    Kanatnaya Street, 81/3   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street   81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of the building: dwelling house, a building of residential complex
Style: eclecticism, Renaissance
Architects: N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Chodetskiy
Date of construction: 1891
Status: local architectural monument
Other addresses: 1, Orlikova Lane

Main facade

General view View of the corner part of the house Facade along Orlikova Lane Facade along Orlikova Lane

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=218301489096028915799.0004d2ca05f65c30893f4&t=h&ll=46.46643,30.746511&spn=0,0&output=embed

Yard facade

General view General view

While projecting the new building, Tolvinskiy took the way of mixing the styles of two previous buildings. The building got dripstones above the second floor windows (their corbels are almost identical to the corbels of the dripstonesof the first building) and increased quantity of modeled decor.

Thereby, the construction from the side of Kanatnaya Street obtained the traces of inseparable architectural ensemble, while the facades of the first and the second buildings (along Italian Boulevard) are harmonized with each other in a much smaller degree. Both exterior facades of the building number 3 are very simple compositionally : extreme axes are marked out by superficial avant-corpses, the corner of the building is truncated.

One of the avant-corpses, a view from below

The first floor is worked up with the rustic stone analogous with the rustic stone from the building no.1. The second floor, as it had been mentioned before, is emphasized by dripstones crowning the window openings on corbels.

Solution of the second floor windows

Windows from the side of Orlikova Lane Window of the yard facade

Here semicircular and three-angled dripstones are used, alternating one after the other. The second floor is performed as another quotation of Gonsiorovskiy building.

Window of the third floor from the side of Orlikova Lane

In the piers of the first and second floors the panels in the shape of thin empty frames without decor are placed, giving the facades of the building extra plasticity. End facades are compositionally consonant with the end facades of the building no.1. In the avant-corps, emphasizing the center of the facade plane, with triangular pediments, the windows of the entrance halls lighting are placed.

Avant-corps of the end facade with the windows of the entrance hall lighting

Utility building, adjacent to the end facade

General view General view

Doorways to the entrance hall are arranged on the same axe with lighting windows. The third entrance hall is equipped in the corner, at the junction of wings from the side of the yard. Architectural finish of yard facades is similar to facial ones. Details of interior decoration repeat the previous building, except the elements in the center of the railing scroll.

One of the entrance halls

Railing The element of the railing scroll

Therewith, in the building no. 3 the tiles are used, with which the landings in all the entrances halls are tiled with. In other buildings of the complex tile is absent.

Tiles of the landings

 

 

References and archives

  • “Architects of Odessa”. V. Pilyavskiy
    *”Architecture of Odessa. Style and time”. V. Pilyavskiy
  • “Houses, buildings, monuments of Odessa and their Architects”. V. Pilyavskiy

Authors

In the year 1891, after the death of Gonsiorowskiy, the projecting of the further building of the quarter was already managed by N. К. Tolvinskiy. In the year 1889 was made a laying of the second building which compositionally continued the house of Gonsiorowskiy along the building line of the Italian Boulevard.

About complex   81/1, Kanatnaya Street   Канатная, 81/2   81/3, Kanatnaya Street   81/4,Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street   81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of building: dwelling house, building of the residential complex
Style: eclecticism, renaissance
Architect: N. К. Tolvinskiy and engineer К. V. Chodetskiy
Date of building: 1890
Status: local architectural monument
Other addresses: 9, Italian Boulevard

Facial facade

General view Facade on the side of Italian Boulevard Facade on the side of Italian Boulevard Facade along Yamchitskogo Lane (side)

Gate

Yard facades

General view Back facade

The building number 2 (the smallest one of all the buildings of the complex) was erected just in one year: in the year 1889 its laying was made and the year 1890 the building was almost finished. The buildingrepresent by a simply compound parallelepiped, has two spacious entrance halls, the entrances to which are located from the yard side.

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=218301489096028915799.0004d2ca0101872df7126&t=h&ll=46.467605,30.747723&spn=0,0&output=embed

One of the facades of the building is orientated towards the building 1, the second one faces the building line of Yamchinskogo Lane. The central parts of the both facades are marked with shallow risalits crowned with strict triangle frontons. In the risalits the windows for the staircase lightening are built in. The facade along the Italian Boulevard is strictly symmetric and quite modestly decorated. The main compositional role is performed by two risalits with triangle frontons, similar to the side ones.

Upper part of one of the risalits along Italian Boulevard Lower part of one of the risalits along Italian Boulevard

The ground floor is covered by a deep horizontal rustication, two upper floors are rusticated schematically.

Rustication of the yard facade

General view Pier Rustication, framing the window openings of service rooms (back facade) Rustication, framing the window openings of service rooms (back facade)

The piers of the first and second floors between the risalits are flanked by the pilasters without an order, the windows in the risalits are similarly decorated.

Decoration of the window openings of the facial facades (the first floor)

Window of the main plane Window of the risalit

Above the windows of the first floors from the one risalit to another one inclusive a meander is made which to some extent smoothes the dryness of the facade which is almost devoid of any moulded decor.

Meander

The entrance halls saved their original railings and marble stairs, window frames and doors in the lobby. The landings are laid with marble plates, many of which are still in perfect condition. The drawing of the stair railings which reminds the ancient ornamental images of the incoming wave, is represented by the rhythm of curls with the round decorative elements in the center of each of them. In all the buildings of Tolvinskiy, these elements are not repeated even if the railings are identical.
In the buildings number 2 and 3 they make a flower, in the buildings number 4 and 5 they represent a simple circle without any decorative luxury.

Central hall, railings

General view of two flights of stairs The last flight of stairs Fragment of the last flight of stairs Sample of the drawing Curl Central element of the curls

From the landing of the second floor a low-cost metal stairs lead to the attic, the analogues of which were quite spread in the buildings of Odessa of the end of XIX centuries (usually installed in the secondary staircases and were almost never used in facial entrance halls).

Service stairs

Railings Central part of the baluster

The vaultings of the entrance halls are flat, supported by the girders. The vaulting of the ground floor is a cross-vaulting. The landing of the ground floor is compositionally separated from the staircase and vestibule by the wide arch bays. In general, the vaultings in all the buildings of Tolvinskiy are identical.

Vestibule

General view (from the side of the staircase) Lightening window

Plates of soviet times

 

 

References and archives

  • «Architects of Odessa». V. Pilyavskiy
  • «Architecture of Odessa. Style and time» V. Pilyavskiy
  • «Buildings, construction, monuments of Odessa and their architects» V.Pilyavskiy

Authors

A huge monumental structure, built in 1905 for Odessa private pawnshop, can be called one of the most striking constructions in Odessa citing Italian Renaissance. An architect Vikentiy Ivanovich Prohaska, raising largely exquisite apartment buildings and mansions, however, coped perfectly with an unconventional challenge— the design of the building of administrative and public function.

Type of building: administrative
Style: modernized Neo-Renaissance

Architects
A. A. Digbi (building, the 1820-s)
A. N. Kolovich (rebuilding, 1851)
V. I. Prohaska (rebuilding, reconstruction, replanning, raising of the second storey, new design of facades and interiors)

Date of construction: 1904—1905
Status: local architectural monument
Second address: 12, Lecha Kaczynskogo Street (former Polskaya Street)
Previous building of the site: house of Sikard, old building of Joint-Stock Company of Odessa private pawnshop

Facades

General view of the building General view of the building Facade on Bunina Street A fragment of the facade on Bunina Street General view of the building Facade on Bunina Street Facade on Lecha Kaczynskogo Street( Polskaya Street)
House of Sikard, later the  pawnshop, before the rebuilding

House of Sikard, later the pawnshop, before the rebuilding
Odessa from the first years of its existence was, first of all, a city of trade and usury. Loaning was started in 1800, as, however, and pawn operations, when the city was sent 25,000 rubles at the supreme injunction for construction work that took place in the port. The use of money occurred under the percentage that was usually charged from the total amount taken, and the expense was on parts. If a money lender became aware of the unreliability of the merchant, he could at any time request a refund the amount back. However, the owners of pawnshops did not abuse such right: they valued their reputation, and for a termination of the contract a suspicion of bankruptcy had to be significant.

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=210826835402245267087.0004cfb980011cb56a39c&&t=h&ll=46.480947,30.744414&spn=0,0&output=embed

At the beginning of the XIX century Committee for the fulfillment of works in the port was formed. The president of Commerce College was actually a prince Gagarin, who later gave permission for the issuance of money in a pledge of valuables and goods. It is known that the first loan was given an Italian whose name did not come up to our days, but following loans were issued Odessa businessmen of that time: bills, showing the issuance of a number of loans for 1000 rubles in a pledge of 1000 pounds of fuel sulfur several loans of 1000 rubles and 500 rubles in a pledge of 80 and 40 pounds of wax, oil drums, fur goods, houses were preserved in the archives. For paying majority of debts deferments were widely practiced.

Life in debt, it can be said, was perhaps the custom, quite well-known people took loans as well. Among them there are two obligations from December 17, 1800 from Felix Deribas, who took 1,000 rubles in a pledge of silver jewels, and his wife, Octavia, taken 1,200 rubles in a pledge of ladies' powder set, a large silver tub, two trays, spoons and more.

At the end of 1886 in Odessa the first private pawnshop was opened (chairman and manager— V. Kirchner), it was not even partially owned by the state, and had a capital of 500 thousand rubles. Later, with the growth of the firm prosperity, the capital was increased to 700,000. Being a very respectable office, the pawnshop had as many as seven offices throughout the city, the most important of which was located on 12, Policeiskaya Street, in a large two-storey house of Sicard, probably erected as early as the 1820's (architect A. Digbi). Originally, this house was built as a grain warehouse («magazeyn») with habitable rooms, in 1851, the building was subjected to reconstruction (architect — A. N. Kolovich) significantly modified its look and layout. Since its foundation, the pawnshop rented this house, and in 1891 finally bought it.

Advertisement of Joint-Stock Company of Odessa private pawnshop

As already mentioned, the pawnshop departments were scattered throughout the city. In addition to  the head office of the pawnshop situated on Policeiskaya Street, there were seven more of its branches, four of them — of general purpose (in 26, Tiraspolskaya Street, 62, Richelievskaya Street, 16, Preobrazhenskaya Street, 44, Stepovaya Street,) and three specialized ones— on 22, Uspenskaya with large warehouses for  furniture storage; on 29, Mikhailovskaya Street, where it was possible to pawn a car, a carriage, a bicycle, a foot sewing machine and other bulky items, and on 14,Deribasovskaya Street, they took as a pledge gold, silver, precious stones and watches, and, right up to nine pm, as a person could always urgently need money. A loan is usually issued for a period of up to three months, after which one could still ask for a two-month delay its return, but then all unredeemed things, were sold by auction at the main office of the pawnshop on certain days of the week: jewelry — Mondays, furniture — Wednesdays, fur and clothing — Thursdays, bicycles — on Fridays. Besides, the pawnshop without issuing a loan, but for a certain fee, took different things in storage for one year, and some housewives preferred to leave fur coats and other expensive furs for the summer without any risk of damage by the moth, which was quite possibly in the home conditions. Very thrifty or staying in reduced circumstances citizens, before moving to the country even refused from the apartment and the furniture and other property gave to the pawnshop, where it was safely stored until the autumn return of their hosts in the city and rent them new or old accommodation.

By the end of the XIX century, the firm started to experience a strong lack of storage space for unredeemed and stored property, among which, of course, there were many very bulky items that required a large exhibition space. Besides, for implementation of auctions and bank operations required specially equipped rooms. The old building on Policeiskaya Street no longer met the needs of the company in the first place owing to the lack of space. In 1904, a construction work on the «adaptation» of the house to the needs of the pawnshop started. The project was made by a well-known by that time architect V. I. Prohaska, who, beginning with the reconstruction of the original building, raised in fact a new one.

Pawnshop building before the end of construction works, still without a wing on Polskaya Street

By 1905, all construction work had been completed, but an interior finishing still took a while. At the corner of Policeiskaya (Bunina) Street and the Polskaya Street a magnificent building arose, the style of which was made ​​in the best traditions of the Italian Renaissance with some elements borrowed from Art Nouveau. The new building of the pawnshop was carrying out in two stages: firstly a wing on Policeiskaya Street was raised, as evidenced by the photo of the end of 1904, and the following year a wing on Polskaya Street appeared. In fact, the previous building was entered in the volume of currently existing one, the first and second storeys kept the shape of windows and the width of piers. A passage arch location to the courtyard also had no changes. The third storey and a mezzanine were already overbuilt by Prohaska. The second floor housed the auction and operating rooms, and from Policeiskaya Street side, on the first floor, extensive areas for the storage of the pawnshop clients’ property were equipped.

Photograph of the building of the Soviet times

Photograph before 1965 Photograph of the end of the 1950-s Fragments of the building facade in the photograph of Vladimir Georgievich Nikitenko, the 70-s

The building is located on a corner site and is L-shaped in plan. The wing on Policeiskaya Street is more extensive than the wing on Polskaya Street (17 to 13 window axes, respectively), and occupies most of the block. A large scale structure is emphasizes not only by chiaroscuro of large forms with refined profiles and moldings, but by a general proportional order as well.

An extreme window axis, adjacent to the neighboring hotel «Bristol», is singled out by a massive risalit. The corner part of the building is accentuated by wide risalit of three window axes on every street side.

Risalits

Corner risalit, a view upward Extreme risalit at the junction with the building of the hotel

Having met, they form a volume similar to the square in plan tower. Similarly the corner part of a later house Von-Desh at the corner of Gogolya Street and Sabaneyev bridge is accentuated. «The Tower» and the extreme risalit have a mezzanine, through which the level of the roof here is much higher. Between risalits on Policeiskaya Street rhythmic series of identically decorated third-storey windows stretch. The composition formed by the decoration details of each of them is remarkable for harmony and well found proportions. Under the window there is a balustrade, serving as a basis for two pilasters with Corinthian capitals, flanking window openings and supporting a triangular fascia. Each pilaster is decorated with moulded wreath of a modernized style at the base. A window of the third storey in the risalit, that adjacent to the neighboring hotel, is decorated in a similar manner.

Decoration of the second floor windows

Composition of the windows rhythm Composition of the windows rhythm Windows in the central risalit on Bunina Street General view of the framing of one of the windows

Decoration of one of the windows in the courtyard of Doges Palace in Venice — the most likely source of inspiration for the architect V.I. Prohaska.

Pilaster capital Pilaster capital Decoration at the base of the pilaster

At the level of the first and second storeys risalits have a trapezoidal shape, with a pronounced inclination of the edges, and at the third storey level the edges are perpendicular to the horizon line. Such a move significantly strengthened the monumentality of the building and weighted its lower part, in contrast to which the upper looks much lighter and refined. The central part of the facade plane on Policeiskaya Street is marked by another risalit, less deep, but having the same shape as the others. Its width is two window axes, on the second floor there is a balcony with a stone balustrade, and on the ground — two-column portal in the vein of classicism.

Central risalit on Bunina Street

General view Portal Portico of the portal

Another portal is closer to Polskaya Street. Compared with the previous one, it is put forward much further as regards the plane of the facade and is treated as a small porch. Here there is an entrance to the staircase, and from the ground floor landing a passageway into the courtyard is made.

Portico of the main entrance

General view General view General view

The corner part of the building is decorated with the greatest magnificence. A second-floor window is flanked by pilasters, and a massive fascia, the central, is based on two columns that, like the pilasters, are crowned with Corinthian capitals. From the side of each street there are balconies with balustrades. Balconies of the corner part and the central risalit on Policeiskaya Street are supported by large consoles made ​​in Art Nouveau style. Over extreme windows of the corner risalit from Polskaya Street side there are preserved dates of the pawnshop foundation and the building construction (1886, 1905 respectively). Over similar windows from Policeiskaya Street side, originally an inscription: «Odessa pawnshop» was placed, eventually destroyed. A strip of meander, framing windows from Policeiskaya Street side as well, is stretched along the piers of the corner part.
The similar meander adorns under windows cornices of the first floor. On the corner part of the building there is a marble advertising plate of the architect: «Built by architect. V. I. Prohaska. 1905». A similar one can be seen on the facade of Prokudin’s house.

Decoration of the corner part of the building

General view of the windows composition from Lecha Kaczynskogo Street side Date of the pawnshop foundation, symmetrically there is the construction date Column capital Decoration at the base of a column Consoles, supporting the balcony Decoration detail of one of the consoles

Gap for the flag holder

Rustic stone of the corner

Advertising plate of the architect

The facade from Polskaya Street side is compositionally different. For example, second-floor windows are grouped in threes and the central one is devoid of any kind of framing.

Windows of the second floor from Lecha Kaczynskogo Street side Windows of the second floor from Lecha Kaczynskogo Street side

Console (from Lecha Kaczynskogo Street)

A semicircular passage arch is enclosed in the volume of trapezoid portal of two-storey height.

Portal

General view Frequently occurring  lion mask has been preserved to the left of the passage arch

Building facades are processed with rustic stone that on the ground and first floors is rather deep and expressive, and on the second — conditional.

Finishing of the ground and first floors

Windows of the ground and first floors in the corner part of the building Rustic stone of the ground floor(on  Lecha Kaczynskogo Street side) Rustic stone of the ground floor (on Bunina Street) Windows of the ground floor(on Bunina Street) Window of the ground floor Under window cornice ( on Bunina Street) Under window cornice ( on Bunina Street) Windows of an exhibition or trade room ( on Bunina Street)

The facade plane of the second floor is separated from the two lower floors by a cornice. Much more massive cornice crowns the building itself and rests upon large dentils traditional for Prohaska.

Dentil

Between them (outside risalits) there are small gaps, designed to illuminate the garret. Mezzanine windows are much larger and decorated by Art Nouveau wreaths.

Mezzanine windows

Mezzanine windows Mezzanine windows

The facade from Polskaya Street has three storeys, and from Policeiskaya Street goes from three to two that is associated with the descent of the street in the direction of Karantinnaya gully. Hence, to identify number of storeys is quite difficult.

The pawnshop had safely existed within the walls of the building until the revolution, in Soviet times the building housed a clothing factory named after Vorovskiy, which subsequently moved into a new building on Ilfa and Petrova Street. However, much of the interior decoration was irretrievably lost. The staircase (entrance from Policeiskaya Street) has preserved the original railings of unique pattern, which, however, similar to the gate of a merchant Blizhenskiy’s house (authorship of V.I. Prohaska as well). Walls of the staircase are completely devoid of decoration, but on the second floor it can be seen conditional arcades from shallow arch niches. Entrances to operating and auction rooms, which interiors have not been spared by time and lodgers, are located here as well.

Staircase

General view Railings Railings Railings Railings

Through the passage arch (not used now) and the passage from the landing of the ground floor one can get into the courtyard of the building. The rear facade is decorated modestly, but the second-floor windows as windows of the exterior facade, have a semicircular shape in order to comply with the symmetry of the halls with two-sided lighting.

Courtyard facade

The concisely decorated passage arch is probably remained untouched during the rebuilding of the old building; the details of the house view can be read on the front facades.

Passage arch

In general, despite the highly dilapidated state (with the loss of major details of the decor), the facades of the building survived to the present day in virtually unchanged shape. The building of Joint-Stock Company of Odessa private pawnshop can be called one of the key in early works of V. I. Prochaska, equally with houses of Ksid and Blizhenskiy. These exquisite building, undoubtedly, have one thing in common — a masterly mix of Renaissance and Art Nouveau, which became, later, a real «calling card» of the architect and a detail of his unique style.

 

 

References and Archives

Authors

At the turn of the 1880s and 1890s, Odessa was adorned with the largest at the time residential complex. According to the posthumous will of Odessa benefactor P. Z. Yamchitskiy, near the Kulikovo Field, the architectural ensemble, the scope and monumentality of which strike and today, was raised.

About complex   81/1, Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street   81/3, Kanatnaya Street   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street  81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of building: residential complex

Style:
Eclecticism, Renaissance (buildings no. 1-5)
Geometric Art Nouveau (building no. 6)

Architects:
F. V. Gasiorowskiy (building no. 1)
N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Chodetskiy (buildings no. 2-5)
L. M. Chernigov (?) (building no. 6)**

Date of building:
1885-1887 (1st stage, building no. 1)
1890-1895 (2nd stage and completion of the construction, buildings no. 2-5)
1910-е (building no. 6)

Status:
Local architectural monument (buildings no. 1-5)
Object of background building (building no. 6)

Other addresses:
9 and 11, Italianskiy Boulevard
2 and 4, Yamchitskogo Lane
1 and 3, Orlikova Lane

Photograph from the beginning of XX century guide

Pavel Zakharovich Yamchitskiy (about 1800-1882), a secretary assistant of the Odessa Commercial Court, received before 1841 a rank of the titular counselor, among other things, was engaged in charity. During his lifetime, however, he was unknown, although he made a considerable fortune and owned a house on 8, Richelievskaya Street. 1841 year became a turning point for him. September 28 his year-old daughter Varvara died, and on 3 November the same year, at the age of 22 years, his wife Maria Efimovna went away in other world because of a fever. After outliving them for forty years, Pavel Zakharovich Yamchitskiy died in Odessa, December 1, 1882 at the age of 82 years. On 2 December, after a funeral service at the Cathedral, he was buried in the Old Cemetery.

January 11, 1883, the Odessa District Court claimed to the execution of three spiritual testaments of Yamchitskiy. Among other things, he bequeathed that to the example of St. Petersburg Society of cheap apartments, a building named after his name(Pavlovskiy) was built in Odessa for habitation in it citizens of the city that matched the specified by him conditions. Besides Pavlovskiy building as Yamchitskiy wanted had to belong to the city — «an inalienable forever property of Odessa». According to the will, for the management of the construction of the building and then operation of the house, Mikhail Bogdanovich Nilus (as director) and Iona Galagan (as an assistant) were assigned. To help them the City Council was to elect two public deputies to the end of the construction. There were two more executors in the testament of Yamchitskiy — Stanislaw Dunin and Victor Sahnovsiky. By the end of 1890, Iona Galagan left his duties, but Dunin, on the contrary —fulfilled. They concerned debentures of Pavel Yamchitskiy (Nilus and Sakhnovskiy had already been dead). According to the testament, in the case of power removal from agreed executors, one of the sons of Maria Klimenko or Anna Veselovskaya, probably relatives of Pavel Zakharovich, had to be appointed instead. And so it happened: on 12 September, 1897, according to the decision of the City Council, Boris Klimenko became a director of Pavlovskiy building and his assistant — Sergey Veselovskiy. Yamchitsky bequeathed to sell his own house on 8, Richelievskaya Street and use the proceeds for expanding the complex of Pavlovskiy buildings. However, this house suffered from the fire, and Klimenko and Veselovskiy delayed the sale of the ashes for a long time, thereby preventing the city in actions under the will. The story ended with a lawsuit and lengthy assize.

Pavlovskiy houses on the map of Mikhail Diterikhs (1894)—left, and on the map of Odessa

https://maps.google.com/maps?q=46.467538,30.746602&num=1&t=h&hl=ru&ll=46.466932,30.747777&spn=0.00269,0.005681&z=17&iwloc=near&output=embed

By 1895, the construction of five of the six currently existing buildings had been completed. The largest at the time residential complex in Odessa was repeatedly mentioned in guidebooks and references of city sights. A. S. Borinevich dedicated a part of the article about the charity in Odessa, wrote to the centenary of the city and went down in the jubilee digest, released in 1894 by the Committee of City Government, to Pavlovskiy building of low-cost apartments:

«... so-called „Pavloviн building with low-cost apartments“ P. Z. Yamchitskiy left in his will, approved in 1883, a capital of 511,000 rubles (Author: In terms of today's money, this capital can be estimated at more than $ 10 million. Capital was spent partly on the construction of the complex, and in part put at interest used to maintain the buildings in proper form) [...] in order to construct a building named after his name(Pavlovskiy), „for housing in it, with the payment of money at a rate of no more than 3 percent of total income, and in exceptional circumstances and free of charge, for those Odessa citizens, mostly Christians, who are not discredited by the behavior, have settled life here, their furniture and some craft or other means for subsistence. “ The city allotted a free space of the former Dragutinskie plantations, in the amount of 3,450 sazhens: in 1885, a laying of the main building, which was completed in 1887, was made: in 1889 the second building was constructed, in 1891 — the third and in 1893 — the fourth. All three-storey houses consisted of 23 flats of three rooms each, 103 — 2 rooms and 37 — one room: in addition there were 6 shops and the apartment for administration „.

Record in the address directory (1908)

Shortly before the completion of construction, in November 1893, Public school for children living in the building was opened. Their learning, textbooks and manuals were free. At Pavlovskiy house there was a permanent physician whose services the residents of the complex could use for free. Medicines and necessary at first medical benefits patients also received free of charge from the home pharmacy at the building office. The location of schools, shops and the home clinic, unfortunately, is unknown. According to the data of the same 1893, six hundred forty-one people of both sexes lodged in the building, 32 of them did not pay for accommodation.

Photo of the early XX century, right away — the building no. 1

The first of the six buildings the building no. 1 was erected. The building is located at the corner of Kanatnaya Street and Italian Boulevard and occupies a quite complicated in plan asymmetric site. The architect F. V. Gonsiorowskiy, in fact, not only erected the building itself, but also developed a general layout for the quarter development (within the limits of Kanatnaya Street, Italian Boulevard, Orlikova and Yamchitskogo Lanes). N. K. Tolvinskiy, who continued the construction of the complex, partly followed this plan, having built four buildings on the perimeter of the quarter, saving number of storeys of the ensemble and the overall style with the building of Gonsiorowskiy. At the end of the second stage of construction under the guidance of Tolvinskiy in the middle of the block there appeared a large courtyard, which was originally planned for a small garden and placing of smaller, service buildings.

However, this area was empty for a long time, and only after more than a decade and a half, in the center of the courtyard, a large, differing from the surrounding buildings, the building 6 — four-storey parallelepiped of geometric Art Nouveau style appeared. Unfortunately, data on the exact date of its construction, as well as the author of the project are not available; however, analyzing the architectural design of the building, it can be found parallels with the work of architects L. M. Chernigov and A. Minkus.

All buildings constructed by Tolvinskiy are interconnected along the building line by one-story annexes that gives the courtyard of the complex some intimacy. Their front facades are rusticated similar to the first storeys and it has the effect of continuity and solidity of the construction.

In the courtyard a small, square in plan, construction with cut corners, raised in the tradition of „brick style“ and overlapped by a low octagonal tent roof remained. Among the versions of its original purpose, the most likely is a version of the electric substation or dovecote. However, it is — just a guess.

Construction of unknown purpose

General view Window opening

On the other side of the courtyard another interesting item survived, part and parcel of Odessa of the end of XIX century — the filling well.

Well

View from the building no.3, on the left —the building no.6, in the distance —the building no.5 General view

Pavlovskiy houses of low-cost apartments had successfully performed their functions until the revolution. These functions have not changed in the Soviet era; however, like most of the pre-revolutionary Odessa apartment buildings, the buildings of the complex were rearranged and subjected to the „compaction“. The subsequent history of houses was not violent. In 1923, at the address 2,Yamchitskogo Lane (i.e. exactly on the side of the complex with cheap apartments) 1st Maternity Hospital was located .

General view of Pavlovskiy complex with low-cost apartments (about 1917). On the left —the building no.1, on the right —the building no. 3, between them, in deep —the building no.6

In the 30 years of the Pavlovskiy houses passed the next wave of renovations, the original plan was finally broken, but its general outlines were preserved. During the Soviet period, the buildings were not repaired for years and fell into desolation, and today their dilapidated condition can hardly be called even satisfactory. However, the complex of Pavlovskiy houses with low-cost apartments is valuable not only from the architectural, urban planning and historical point of view; it is a peculiar monument of the generous charity, so typical for the inhabitants of Odessa XIX century.

Building no. 1

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 2

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 3

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 4

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 5

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 6

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

 

 

References and Archives

Authors

Julia Morton’s mansion is not considered as one of the most impressive buildings on Marazlievskaya Street, but its refinement and subtle blend of styles always attract attention. Moreover, it is one of the oldest buildings in the street

Type of building: mansion, apartment house
Style: eclecticism, blending of Baroque and Renaissance motifs
Architect: D. E. Mazirov
Date of construction: 1886
Status: local architectural monument

Main facade

General view General view General view General view

In 1886 Marazlievskaya Street replenished another mansion. The building was constructed by an architect of Armenian origin D. E. Mazirov for Julia Stepanovna Morton (1858 -?), who was probably the daughter of Odessa wealthy entrepreneur and noble Stepan Ivanovich Rally.
S. I. Rally owned a plot nearby the Sabanskiy barracks on Kanatnaya Street. Julia Morton was 28 years old when she came into possession of the mansion in which, most likely, lived her entire family. Unlike S. I. Rally that had some apartment houses Morton owned only one house on Marazlievskaya Street. The architect Demosthenes Mazirov, at the time of the construction of the mansion, had to his credit, besides a number of reconstructed buildings , a small number of refined buildings designed for Vurgavt, Mavrokordato, Lipman-Wolf and Richter. The buildings were characterized by vivid performance, the use of Neo-Baroque elements and a good spatial composition. On the contrary, the mansion of Morton was executed in more restrained Renaissance motifs that, however, was compensated by a careful approach to the tectonics of the building.

https://maps.google.com/maps?q=46.481373,30.750244&num=1&t=h&&ll=46.481381,30.750861&spn=0.002586,0.010729&z=17&output=embed

The house is distinguished by pronounced asymmetry in the plan and design. The mansion built with a space from an adjacent area that might have been empty at the time of its construction. However, between the buildings there was an insert with a passage arch at the ground floor level and with rooms on the first floor. An emphasis is made on a corner rounded part of the building and, owing to the fact, the decoration manner of the main facade is changing in the horizontal direction. There are two shallow risalits from the main facade side. Left one, with two window axis width is narrower, and creates stress on the left side edge of the facade plane. Along the edges of the risalit on the first floor there are Doric order pilasters. On the same floor, but in the center, in a window pier, there is a sculpture of a caryatid, which reproduces exactly the sculpture in a building designed by the architect V. Kabiolskiy on 36, Marazlievskaya Street and 16, Sadovaya Street. This sculpture is somewhat balances the facade, contrasting the left side, overloaded by elements, with the right side of the facade. Close to the round corner of the building there is a wider risalit, in width of three window axis. In piers between the windows of the first floor Corinthian order pilasters are located.

Decoration of the first floor facade

Windows between risalits Capital of a pilaster, flanking windows between the risalits Windows decoration between the risalits Windows decoration between the risalits Statue between windows of the side risalit Statue between windows of the side risalit Capital of a pilaster, flanking side risalit windows Semi column capital of the big risalit Corner part of the building Decoration above the corner window Corbels under the attic Attic balustrade Bas-relief insert on the attic

The main entrance is located asymmetrically in the risalit at its left edge. Decoration of the main entrance is fully preserved, including the original door (a simpler version of it can be seen in the house of M. Katsnelson on 26, Marazlievskaya Street) and ornate metal canopy on the thin cast columns.

Main entrance

General view General view Decoration of upper part of the door leaf Decoration of lower part of the door leaf Carved detail of the door Canopy decoration Canopy decoration Capital of the cast canopy column

The risalit is also emphasized by an arched attic ledge that runs around the perimeter of all facades facing the street, and is solid in the areas of risalits, in other parts it represents a balustrade. The storeys of the building contrasted with each other, only the second floor is richly decorated, where there is a large number of small stucco mouldings and ornaments, as well as mentioned above caryatid, pilasters and half-columns. The ground floor is decorated with only rusticated pilaster strips and balustrades in the panels of the windows.

Pilaster strips of the ground floor windows

Basement floor is also residential and decorated simply with linear rustic stone. Basement floor windows have bow-shaped apertures and are decorated by locks.

The facade of the building is equipped with a balcony only, which, however, is of considerable size. It begins at the edge of a large risalit, passes through it, the corner part and the insert to the firewall of the neighboring building. The fence is a patterned metal grate on stone props, but the authenticity of the existing balcony railings is questionable. To the right of the rounded corner at the end of XX — beginning of XXI century the terrace on the base with metal trusses that support part of the balcony was attached. Passage arch is adorned with decorative frame in Baroque style, on a compositional level its principle of indentation from the building line of the street has something in common with passage arches of the other two houses on Marazlievskaya Street — E. Petrova’s (1901) house at number 36 and the neighboring apartment building Vassal (1902-1912), which occupies plot number 38.

Passage arch

General view General view A view from the street side Decoration detail over the passage arch A view from the courtyard side Modern replica of the terrace

A courtyard facade has an expressed play of volumes and asymmetry: approximately in the center there is a trapezoidal risalit, hiding a service metal spiral staircase, perfectly preserved, and having access to both floors and the attic.

Courtyard facade

General view General view A view from the roof of the mansion on 18, Marazlievskaya Street

Bay window of the courtyard facade

General view Finishing of the first floor Semi column capital Console

Service staircase

A view downward A view downward (photograph 2009) A view downward (photograph 2009) Steps ornamentation Steps ornamentation A view upward A view upward

A service staircase is lit by narrow windows located on all faces of the risalit, at the top these windows are arched. At the right from the mentioned risalit there is a less deep but wider trapezoidal bay window which has wide windows and corners decorated with Tuscan order columns. At the left on the roof of the building there is an authentic semi mansard, which is only accessible with the service staircase. The service staircase leads to the basement apartments as well.

The main entrance was gaily decorated originally, corresponding to the external appearance of the building, but the supposed building paintings were painted over, also two Ionic columns capitals flanking the aperture between the lobby and staircase were damaged — volutes at the outer sides of them were broken off. A lobby ceiling is shaped cross vaults; above the entrance to the staircase the ceiling is flat and decorated with panels. Between the walls and vaults there is a moulded cornice, supported by the mentioned columns and decorative consoles.

Staircase lobby

General view from the doorway Vaults General view from the lobby Cornice console Cornice console Cornice ornament Capital of a column, flanking an aperture between the lobby and the landing of the ground floor

Ceiling of the ground floor landing

Panel panel

On the landing of the ground floor on both sides there are living quarters doors, most likely for rent, here is the entrance to the mansion lobby. Stairs leading to the first floor has in plan refined horseshoe bend and, despite the relatively small size, looks very impressive.

Main staircase and a lobby

General view General view A view from the entrance Lobby Apartment door of later times

Railings are artsy interlacement of simple geometric figures: the primary motif is a circle and a composition of circles and scrolls. Railings variety is very rare, and if reproduced anywhere, is not known.

Railings

Flight of stairs Flight of stairs Entrance flight of stairs Horizontal baluster Horizontal variant Horizontal variant A fragment Post prop

A ceiling beam rests on two columns, crowned with Corinthian order capitals, made in free plastic interpretation.

Lobby columns

General view Capital Capital Capital

The first floor landing once represented a large gala room, part of which had to be sacrificed in the redevelopment of the mansion during the Soviet era and division into communal apartments. Hence, through a small narrow corridor, one can get on the service staircase, described earlier.

 

 

References and Archives

  • «Rally». An article in the newspaper Odessa World News number 74 (3.11.2009). S. G. Rechetov
    *Directory and reference book «All Odessa», 1908, L. А. Lisyanskiy
  • «Architects of Odessa». V. Pilyavsky
  • «Architecture of Odessa. Style and time». V. Pilyavsky
  • «Buildings, structures, monuments of Odessa and architects». V. Pilyavsky
  • Статья о доме в блоге Antique

Authors