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Chernigov L. M.

It had taken a decade and a half from the end of the building number 5 construction before the ensemble of Pavlovskiy houses with low-cost apartments was supplemented with the last building — the number 6.

About complex   81/1, Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street   81/3, Kanatnaya Street   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street   81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of building: administrative building, educational building
Style: geometric Art Nouveau
Architect: L. M. Chernigov (?)
Date of building: 1910s
Status: object of background housing

Facade

General view from the building number 3 side General view from the building number 1 side
General view from the building number 5 side General view from the windows of the building number 1 Front facade from the building number 1 side

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Unfortunately, the exact details of the construction date and the author of the project are not available, that does not prevent, however, to conduct a free analysis of the house architecture. The authorship of L. M. Chernigov can most likely be supposed, as in the design of the building there is a number of elements peculiar to the architect. The building is strictly symmetrical; a silhouette is rectangular with a trapezoidal eminence in the central part. A similar technique was used by Leonid Chernigov, for example, in a house of Russow on 38b, Koblevskaya Street. A similar silhouette can be seen in a later creation of the architect on 9a, Preobrazhenskaya Street. Building facades are treated in a restrained manner of geometric Art Nouveau style with separate elements of the modernized Empire style and Russian neoclassical revival of the period (for example, moulded wreaths placed symmetrically at the level of the third floor, near the edges of the facade plane).

Decorative details of the ground floor

Windows with a uniting dripstone Windows with a traditional dripstone

Decorative details of the second and third floors

Composition of dripstones, ribbons, geometric decoration Composition from the windows of the same pattern Windows with the uniting dripstone Decoration in the piers One of the wreaths Windows of the second and third floors

Front facades are almost devoid of decoration, in the center of each there is a massive risalit of the staircase in the entire height of the building, flanked at the third-floor level by bay windows, having the shape of a circle quarter in plan. The bay windows are the only details diluting the monotony of front facades.

Risalit of the staircase

Bay windows, flanking the risalit

A view of the bay window from the building number 1 A view of the bay window from the building number 5

The layout of the building is unusual for residential architecture and it is likely that the building number 6 was designed for the arrangement of the various offices and services of Pavlovskiy houses. Both entrance halls on each floor are interconnected by means of a long corridor, on the sides of the latter apartment doors are located. The ceiling of the third floor rooms is much higher than the ceiling of other floors (it is clearly visible and in height of the third floor windows). Over doorways to the entrance halls metal canopies, made ​​in a single style with the architecture of the house, were preserved.

Canopies of the doorways

Canopy of the front facade from the building number 1 side Canopy of the front facade from the building number 5 side Canopy of the front facade from the building number 5 side, a detail

In stair railings a simple geometric pattern was used, various variants of which are found both in the buildings of rational Art Nouveau and in the later constructivist buildings.

Entrance hall

Staircase, a view downward

Railings, general view of the flight of stairs Railings, general view of the flight of stairs Railings, a fragment of the flight of stairs Railings, the horizontal stair banister between flights of stairs Railings, a fragment Railings, a fragment Railings, the horizontal stair banister of the third floor Railings, fastening of the rods Railings, fastening of the balusters

Door of the corridor

Ceiling of the staircase, a fragment of the cornice

In general way, the architecture of the building number 6 contrasts sharply with the other buildings of the complex, bringing into their ensemble a considerable dissonance (first of all by the style and number of floors). However, taken as a separate building, the house is a rather interesting and original example of geometric Art Nouveau of the first half of the 1910s.

 

 

References and Archives

Authors

The small house, occupying half of the standard size site in the facade width on the building line, has characteristic features that are inherent in creative work of Leonid Chernigov. Above the gate there is a janitor‘s room, and the ground floor was intended to accommodate trading space. However, the identification of the actual author of the project is still problematic.

Type of building: residential house with apartment for rent
Style: ornamental Art Nouveau, modernized eclecticism
Architect: unknown (most probably, L. M. Chernigov or M. G. Reinhertz)
Date of construction: after 1900
Status: local architectural monument

Main facade

General view General view

In the second half of the 19th century this site belonged to I. T. Grigoriev. Address books of 1890s mention that Ivan Timofeevich Grigoriev, merchant of the 2nd guild, arranged an oil storage in his own house. In 1890s another merchant of the 2nd guild, Ivan Ermilovich (or Ermolaevich) Grigoriev at the same address kept a shop selling oils and Russian goods (type of these goods wasn’t mentioned in the advertising). Except this, in Grigoriev’s house Haim Benyaminov Komberg, merchant of the 2nd guild, had a grocery trade. On the turn of 19th and 20th centuries someone Haia Mordkovna Porter opened a bookstore here, and in 1900s Zeylik Shmaryev Kofman, merchant of the 2nd guild, used to sell grocery and colonial goods here. Later D. Zinkovetsky and T. Elfant traded oils here and merchant of the 2nd guild I. P. Rosenblatt rented one of the apartments for living.

In 1904 Grigoriev’s site goes to Motel-Abram Mendelevich Sapozhnik, odessian merchant of the 2nd guild, who made his fortune by selling grocery and ironmongery. Considering stylistic features of the house, we can assume, that it was M.-A. M. Sapozhnik, who ordered its construction. The Cultural heritage register of Odessa claims that this house was built in the end of the 19th century. However, Art Nouveau practically did not occur in Odessa until 1900 (“Tea-packing factory of Vysotsky” represents a rare exception).

In 1910s a vegetable oil storage of the trading house “G. and B. Scheinberg” from Chisinau (its owners were hereditary honorary citizens Gersh and Baruch Scheinberg), plumbing trade of S. B. Shnayden and artificial flower trade of Rukhlya Motelevna Drexels were located in the new Sapozhnik’s house.

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Undoubtedly, the house dates from the early Art Nouveau, as evidenced by layout, fascia of the top floor, window apertures, railings of eclecticism style and an abundance of floral decor.

Balconies fencing made in an unusual technique for Odessa with the addition of a metal sheet profiles attract attention as well. Similar railings adorn one of the balconies in the courtyard of Koriman house, which is located on the same side of the street, via three numbers at the corner of Preobrazhenskaya Street.
On the second floor there is a standard width balcony, on the first — twice as much.

Balconies

Small balcony of the second floor Large balcony of the first floor

Between the first and second floors the vertical axes are underlined by panels, very typical for Chernigov’s style.

Panel between the first and second floors

The two last left window axes are located on the passage arch and singled out by a risalit, which culminates in a portico in a decorative Art Nouveau vein.

Passage arch risalit

A view upward General view of the second floor decoration Pediment Renaissance windows of the first floor Panel between windows of the first and second floor

Passage arch

General view General view Janitor‘s room windows

The original gate was half preserved and now is hidden behind the new — from monolithic metal sheet.

Gate

Gate leaves Decoration fragment

Old gate leaves are somewhat similar to those that can be found in the homes of Chernigov.

The risalit decoration is rather eclectic. For example, the windows on the first floor have a Renaissance form casing, and just below the pediment there are two slabs, vaguely stylized as rocaille. Such slabs single out the rest of window axes.

Various decoration details of the main facade

Slab-panel Attic  and corbels Panel under a window

From the part of the courtyard it is obvious that the house is not great really, one or two apartments could be located on each floor.

Courtyard facade

General view Arch risalit

A passage arch here is also marked out by a risalit, which houses the entrance hall staircase. An entrance doorway is located directly in the arch. A pattern of original stair railings is like those in the house of Skarzhinskaya (architect M. Reinhertz), which construction was started in 1906 and completed in 1910.

Entrance hall

Railings, the  entrance flight of stairs Railings Railings Railings Railings

Returning to the design of the facade of the courtyard, it is worth to mention a rather unusual panel, decorating the risalit between the windows of the second and third floors. From the courtyard side and overbuilt floor is in sight, it probably appeared in the Soviet years. In the wing, located perpendicular to the exterior facade there is a backstairs door.

 

 

References and Archives

  • «The architects of Odessa». V. Pilyavsky
  • «The Architecture of Odessa. Style and time». V. Pilyavsky
  • «The buildings, structures, monuments of Odessa and architects». V. Pilyavsky
  • An article on building in a blog Antique

Authors

At the turn of the 1880s and 1890s, Odessa was adorned with the largest at the time residential complex. According to the posthumous will of Odessa benefactor P. Z. Yamchitskiy, near the Kulikovo Field, the architectural ensemble, the scope and monumentality of which strike and today, was raised.

About complex   81/1, Kanatnaya Street   81/2, Kanatnaya Street   81/3, Kanatnaya Street   81/4, Kanatnaya Street   81/5, Kanatnaya Street  81/6, Kanatnaya Street

Type of building: residential complex

Style:
Eclecticism, Renaissance (buildings no. 1-5)
Geometric Art Nouveau (building no. 6)

Architects:
F. V. Gasiorowskiy (building no. 1)
N. K. Tolvinskiy and engineer K. V. Chodetskiy (buildings no. 2-5)
L. M. Chernigov (?) (building no. 6)**

Date of building:
1885-1887 (1st stage, building no. 1)
1890-1895 (2nd stage and completion of the construction, buildings no. 2-5)
1910-е (building no. 6)

Status:
Local architectural monument (buildings no. 1-5)
Object of background building (building no. 6)

Other addresses:
9 and 11, Italianskiy Boulevard
2 and 4, Yamchitskogo Lane
1 and 3, Orlikova Lane

Photograph from the beginning of XX century guide

Pavel Zakharovich Yamchitskiy (about 1800-1882), a secretary assistant of the Odessa Commercial Court, received before 1841 a rank of the titular counselor, among other things, was engaged in charity. During his lifetime, however, he was unknown, although he made a considerable fortune and owned a house on 8, Richelievskaya Street. 1841 year became a turning point for him. September 28 his year-old daughter Varvara died, and on 3 November the same year, at the age of 22 years, his wife Maria Efimovna went away in other world because of a fever. After outliving them for forty years, Pavel Zakharovich Yamchitskiy died in Odessa, December 1, 1882 at the age of 82 years. On 2 December, after a funeral service at the Cathedral, he was buried in the Old Cemetery.

January 11, 1883, the Odessa District Court claimed to the execution of three spiritual testaments of Yamchitskiy. Among other things, he bequeathed that to the example of St. Petersburg Society of cheap apartments, a building named after his name(Pavlovskiy) was built in Odessa for habitation in it citizens of the city that matched the specified by him conditions. Besides Pavlovskiy building as Yamchitskiy wanted had to belong to the city — «an inalienable forever property of Odessa». According to the will, for the management of the construction of the building and then operation of the house, Mikhail Bogdanovich Nilus (as director) and Iona Galagan (as an assistant) were assigned. To help them the City Council was to elect two public deputies to the end of the construction. There were two more executors in the testament of Yamchitskiy — Stanislaw Dunin and Victor Sahnovsiky. By the end of 1890, Iona Galagan left his duties, but Dunin, on the contrary —fulfilled. They concerned debentures of Pavel Yamchitskiy (Nilus and Sakhnovskiy had already been dead). According to the testament, in the case of power removal from agreed executors, one of the sons of Maria Klimenko or Anna Veselovskaya, probably relatives of Pavel Zakharovich, had to be appointed instead. And so it happened: on 12 September, 1897, according to the decision of the City Council, Boris Klimenko became a director of Pavlovskiy building and his assistant — Sergey Veselovskiy. Yamchitsky bequeathed to sell his own house on 8, Richelievskaya Street and use the proceeds for expanding the complex of Pavlovskiy buildings. However, this house suffered from the fire, and Klimenko and Veselovskiy delayed the sale of the ashes for a long time, thereby preventing the city in actions under the will. The story ended with a lawsuit and lengthy assize.

Pavlovskiy houses on the map of Mikhail Diterikhs (1894)—left, and on the map of Odessa

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By 1895, the construction of five of the six currently existing buildings had been completed. The largest at the time residential complex in Odessa was repeatedly mentioned in guidebooks and references of city sights. A. S. Borinevich dedicated a part of the article about the charity in Odessa, wrote to the centenary of the city and went down in the jubilee digest, released in 1894 by the Committee of City Government, to Pavlovskiy building of low-cost apartments:

«... so-called „Pavloviн building with low-cost apartments“ P. Z. Yamchitskiy left in his will, approved in 1883, a capital of 511,000 rubles (Author: In terms of today's money, this capital can be estimated at more than $ 10 million. Capital was spent partly on the construction of the complex, and in part put at interest used to maintain the buildings in proper form) [...] in order to construct a building named after his name(Pavlovskiy), „for housing in it, with the payment of money at a rate of no more than 3 percent of total income, and in exceptional circumstances and free of charge, for those Odessa citizens, mostly Christians, who are not discredited by the behavior, have settled life here, their furniture and some craft or other means for subsistence. “ The city allotted a free space of the former Dragutinskie plantations, in the amount of 3,450 sazhens: in 1885, a laying of the main building, which was completed in 1887, was made: in 1889 the second building was constructed, in 1891 — the third and in 1893 — the fourth. All three-storey houses consisted of 23 flats of three rooms each, 103 — 2 rooms and 37 — one room: in addition there were 6 shops and the apartment for administration „.

Record in the address directory (1908)

Shortly before the completion of construction, in November 1893, Public school for children living in the building was opened. Their learning, textbooks and manuals were free. At Pavlovskiy house there was a permanent physician whose services the residents of the complex could use for free. Medicines and necessary at first medical benefits patients also received free of charge from the home pharmacy at the building office. The location of schools, shops and the home clinic, unfortunately, is unknown. According to the data of the same 1893, six hundred forty-one people of both sexes lodged in the building, 32 of them did not pay for accommodation.

Photo of the early XX century, right away — the building no. 1

The first of the six buildings the building no. 1 was erected. The building is located at the corner of Kanatnaya Street and Italian Boulevard and occupies a quite complicated in plan asymmetric site. The architect F. V. Gonsiorowskiy, in fact, not only erected the building itself, but also developed a general layout for the quarter development (within the limits of Kanatnaya Street, Italian Boulevard, Orlikova and Yamchitskogo Lanes). N. K. Tolvinskiy, who continued the construction of the complex, partly followed this plan, having built four buildings on the perimeter of the quarter, saving number of storeys of the ensemble and the overall style with the building of Gonsiorowskiy. At the end of the second stage of construction under the guidance of Tolvinskiy in the middle of the block there appeared a large courtyard, which was originally planned for a small garden and placing of smaller, service buildings.

However, this area was empty for a long time, and only after more than a decade and a half, in the center of the courtyard, a large, differing from the surrounding buildings, the building 6 — four-storey parallelepiped of geometric Art Nouveau style appeared. Unfortunately, data on the exact date of its construction, as well as the author of the project are not available; however, analyzing the architectural design of the building, it can be found parallels with the work of architects L. M. Chernigov and A. Minkus.

All buildings constructed by Tolvinskiy are interconnected along the building line by one-story annexes that gives the courtyard of the complex some intimacy. Their front facades are rusticated similar to the first storeys and it has the effect of continuity and solidity of the construction.

In the courtyard a small, square in plan, construction with cut corners, raised in the tradition of „brick style“ and overlapped by a low octagonal tent roof remained. Among the versions of its original purpose, the most likely is a version of the electric substation or dovecote. However, it is — just a guess.

Construction of unknown purpose

General view Window opening

On the other side of the courtyard another interesting item survived, part and parcel of Odessa of the end of XIX century — the filling well.

Well

View from the building no.3, on the left —the building no.6, in the distance —the building no.5 General view

Pavlovskiy houses of low-cost apartments had successfully performed their functions until the revolution. These functions have not changed in the Soviet era; however, like most of the pre-revolutionary Odessa apartment buildings, the buildings of the complex were rearranged and subjected to the „compaction“. The subsequent history of houses was not violent. In 1923, at the address 2,Yamchitskogo Lane (i.e. exactly on the side of the complex with cheap apartments) 1st Maternity Hospital was located .

General view of Pavlovskiy complex with low-cost apartments (about 1917). On the left —the building no.1, on the right —the building no. 3, between them, in deep —the building no.6

In the 30 years of the Pavlovskiy houses passed the next wave of renovations, the original plan was finally broken, but its general outlines were preserved. During the Soviet period, the buildings were not repaired for years and fell into desolation, and today their dilapidated condition can hardly be called even satisfactory. However, the complex of Pavlovskiy houses with low-cost apartments is valuable not only from the architectural, urban planning and historical point of view; it is a peculiar monument of the generous charity, so typical for the inhabitants of Odessa XIX century.

Building no. 1

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 2

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 3

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 4

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 5

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

Building no. 6

Architecture of Odessa. 81, Kanatnaya Street

 

 

References and Archives

Authors

Sprung up in 1914 at a crossroad of Pushkinskaya and Troickaya Streets, a huge apartment house of Asvadurov K., was destined to become one of the last significant pre-revolutionary buildings of Odessa. The building boggles minds at present as well, embodying Art Nouveau fancifulness and pompous imperial spirit of Empire style.

Type of building: apartment house
Style: modernized Neo-Empire style
Architects: LM Chernigov, J. S. Goldenberg
Date of construction: 1913-1914
Status: local historical and architectural monument

Facade general view
pushkinskaya-37-012.jpg
pushkinskaya-37-001.jpg Facade along Troickaya Street
pushkinskaya-37-003.jpg Facade along Pushkinskaya Street
pushkinskaya-37-002.jpg Facade along Pushkinskaya Street

pushkinskaya-37-092.jpg
pushkinskaya-37-091.jpg

nikitenko-1970.jpg
Building Facade fragments. Photograph 1970s by Vladimir G. Nikitenko.

In 1913, on the spot of G. Greenwald’s house (1832, arch. I. Kozlov), at the corner of Pushkinskaya Street and Troickaya Street the construction of a huge building for those times began, it was an apartment house for tobacco manufacturer K. Asvadurov.

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The tobacco company «Isaac Asvadurov’s sons» was founded in 1886. The latter, how it was written in advertising in 1896, «in a short time was so successful in satisfying the tastes of connoisseurs —consumers of tobacco goods that in 1888 in London and Brussels World Exhibition was awarded big gold medals for tobacco goods and a honorable diploma for cigarettes. Concerning these products every day spreading throughout Russia and abroad, they obtain favorable notices.»

pushkinskaya-37-061.jpg

Initially the factory was located «in a vast exemplary housing with an electric lighting and central heating» in Asvadurovyh’s own house at 58, Uspenskaya Street (later — 66), and the main store was located in Ekaterininskaya Street, in Wagner’s house, and worked there until the Soviet times.

Pompous, speaking volumes about the social status of the customer, the house in fact was building towards the end of the firm’s flourishing. Its construction took less than a year, and the decoration work was completed shortly before the outbreak of World War I.

Creative union of architects LM Chernigov and J. S. Goldenberg was durable and productive — the building once again proved it for its architectural merits, which were quite a few. In particular, it can be said with confidence that finally shaped Goldenberg’s style and hand was just realized with this building , where he not only fulfilled a purely architectural work — the detailed design calculations of the five-storey building was preserved. In addition, the architect acted as a contractor. The skill and taste of the architects are proved enough by the conspicuous fact that, in the light of enthusiasm for «retrospectivism» in the first half of the 1910s, Asvadurov’s house became the subject to imitate. Besides, being a significant part of the urban development and the actual dominant of Pushkinskaya Street and Troickaya Street crossing, the house with its aspect prescribed a Facade composition solution of «Promstroibank» building, raised by the architect L. Volkova and engineer L. M. Frack on the same crossroad in 1987-1990.

Courtyard
pushkinskaya-37-013.jpg Courtyard Facade
pushkinskaya-37-058.jpg Stair railings at the back door
pushkinskaya-37-059.jpg Courtyard residential wing of the late XIX century, the oldest part of the area housing

The building is one of the largest in size of pre-revolutionary Odessa buildings, the second highest after Margulis’ house in Sabanskiy lane and occupying the largest area of land housing (the period of Art Nouveau buildings). The plot itself can be divided into three wings. The front wing in Pushkinskaya Street has five storeys and two main entrances (ground floor is reserved for trading space). Similar wing along Troickaya Street flows from five to six storeys due to the incline of the Street, so it is difficult to define number of storeys. The third wing, which is located within the plot, is a residential building of the late XIX century; it is designed plainly and looks ordinary.

Asvadurov’s house itself was designed so that it forms a right rectangle yard, being enclosed with above-mentioned yard wing. Despite the considerable size of the building, causing the impression of heaviness, it is not without its share of grace and thanks to the abundance of ancient architecture and sculpture motifs, it impressive with strength and serenity.

The composition of front Facades is similar, but the length of the house along Troickaya Street half as longer as its extend in Pushkinskaya Street, due to the fact that the side parts are occupied six windows axes edgewise against two, respectively.

The corner of the house is marked out with the massive rectangular bay window that combines the second and third floors, culminating in the fourth floor balcony-terrace.

pushkinskaya-37-010.jpg
Corner bay window

The composition is crowned with a gable indissoluble with the cornice decorated with a bas relief depicting Aquila eagle. The plot is directly linked to the Roman theme — such images were used as signs of the Legion in the army, and were put on a pole and decorated with wreaths- rings phalerae. Borrowing Aquila as a plot to bas reliefs became frequent in the age of Empire and found its logical continuation in retrospective Art Nouveau architecture of the 1910s.

pushkinskaya-37-066.jpg
Corner pediment and Aquila. Clearly visible above the drum of the lost rotunda, overlapped with tin sheets.

pushkinskaya-37-067.jpg
Bas relief of Aquila on the corner pediment

The central axis of each Facade which are symmetric in composition, is emphasized with a wide two-storey height risalit (in Troickaya Street — three-storey), acting as a pedestal for a stylized portico of four semi columns with simple capitals high as two stories too.

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Bas relief on the cornice

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Original attic window having preserved original sash

pushkinskaya-37-081.jpg Portico semi column capital
pushkinskaya-37-071.jpg Ornamental wreath above capital
pushkinskaya-37-082.jpg Ornamental wreath above capital

Statues
pushkinskaya-37-062_1.jpg Statue on the portico entablature
pushkinskaya-37-063.jpg Statue on the portico entablature
pushkinskaya-37-065.jpg Statue on the portico entablature
pushkinskaya-37-064.jpg Statue on the portico entablature

On the entablature of the portico there are four statues of antique style (because of dilapidation now is attached to the wall with the fixing bars) and a huge pediment with a semicircular niche serves as the composite dominant of the center, as well as the entire Facade as a whole. Its framing was directly borrowed from the architecture of classical Empire — the same course can be seen, for example, in Kamo palace Facade framing (4, Tiraspol'skaya, 1830—1832, Arch. G. Torricelli).

Pediment
pushkinskaya-37-085.jpg Niche vaults design in the center of the pediment
pushkinskaya-37-084.jpg Detail of niche design in the center of the pediment
pushkinskaya-37-072.jpg Decorative detail of the niche framing

pushkinskaya-37-083.jpg Bas relief on the pediment (right-side version)
pushkinskaya-37-070.jpg Bas relief on the pediment (left-side version)

The space between the semi columns is enlivened with three small octagonal bas reliefs with centaur images, Neptune (most probably) and an abstract ancient temple, framed by drapery. Two semicircular bay windows, ending on the last floor and conventionally defined with semi rotundas, decorated in the same plot, depicting the ancient temple (but supplemented by two torches on the sides) impart additional grace to both pediments. Facade walls surface is rusticated, the lower floors are processed with pick dressing texture and have a darker shade (building original decision is in the restrained grey).

Bas reliefs
pushkinskaya-37-086.jpg Bas relief depicting Neptune
pushkinskaya-37-089.jpg Bas relief depicting a centaur (similar is located on each of the floors in the left-side entrance)
pushkinskaya-37-087.jpg Bas relief depicting an ancient temple
pushkinskaya-37-009.jpg Fragment of Facade central part in Pushkinskaya Street
pushkinskaya-37-011.jpg Facade central part decoration in Troickaya Street

Bay windows
pushkinskaya-37-004.jpg Decoration of one of the side bay windows
pushkinskaya-37-005.jpg Side bay window semi rotunda
pushkinskaya-37-079.jpg Capital of semi rotunda column of the side bay window
pushkinskaya-37-006.jpg Side view of the bay window (right-side) in Pushkinskaya Street
pushkinskaya-37-088.jpg Bas relief decorating one of the side bay windows
pushkinskaya-37-068.jpg Side bay window bas relief above the right-side entrance in Pushkinskaya Street

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One of the symmetrical bas reliefs with floral motif

Upper storeys rustic stone is conventional, shallow. Window apertures of the first (in Pushkinskaya and Troickaya Street — the second) floor are the closest to the plastic forms of Art Nouveau, the general outlines of bay windows also hint expressively at the era of building a house. Massive stone balconies were almost completely lost, however, recreated on Pushkinskaya Street side during the last repairs. Simpler balconies with forged railing met the same fate. On Troickaya Street side the balconies were not recreated.

Balconies
pushkinskaya-37-076.jpg One of the second-floor balconies with forged railings
pushkinskaya-37-078.jpg One of the second-floor balconies with forged railings, fragment
pushkinskaya-37-074.jpg One of the second-floor balconies with forged railings, fragment
pushkinskaya-37-077.jpg One of the second-floor balconies with forged railings, fragment
pushkinskaya-37-075.jpg Balcony railings, stylized garland
pushkinskaya-37-073.jpg Fragment of the balcony railings on the third floor

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Reconstructed ornament on the reconstituted balcony on Pushkinskaya Street side

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Carved detail of the original sash on the ground floor on Troickaya Street side

The tower rotunda was lost as well, once decorated the corner of the building and clearly visible in old photographs. Emergency tower was dismantled in the early 1990s, and the drum, remaining in its place, was covered with tin sheets.

In the picture below (1927) while still present tower rotunda is clearly visible and the house itself was not even fifteen years after the end of construction.

pushkinskaya-37-062.jpg

On the central axis of the Facade on Troickaya Street side, there is a high, occupying two storeys, passage arch with cylindrical vault, design motif of the latter is similar to the halls vaults in the entrances in Pushkinskaya Street. In the arch itself the original doors, lost in time most of the decor, except for the carved wreaths, were preserved. The Facades of the building from the courtyard are quite minimalist and totally devoid of decorative design elements.

Passage arch to yard
pushkinskaya-37-056.jpg
pushkinskaya-37-047.jpg Interior View

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Vaults fragment

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Entrance door, decor

At different times, one after the other the original entrance doors in Pushkinskaya Street were removed. The identical door that led into the office facilities (now the College of Economy and Trade Management), in Troickaya Street side has been replaced with an approximate copy (unfortunately, having nothing in common with the original except for general composite shapes). The last door led into the left-side entrance in Pushkinskaya Street and disappeared in the second half of the 2000s.

Front door entrances
pushkinskaya-37-008.jpg Facade in Pushkinskaya Street, the entrance into the right front door

Facade in Pushkinskaya Street, the entrance to the left-side front door

pushkinskaya-37-060.jpg Original left-side entrance door (now lost).

Main entrances are identical in configuration, but in right direction staircases are parallel to the hall axis, which turned perpendicular to the left-side staircases. Halls cornices support semi columns with capitals in exaggerated, modernized proportions. The vault is covered with square hollows; in the center of each a flower is added. There are two varieties of flowers, arranging in a checkerboard pattern. Such a simple, at first glance, the course gives the impression of unusual solemnity, despite the relatively small size of the hall.

Left-side entrance
pushkinskaya-37-038.jpg
Hall (detail), view of the front door

Hall, vaults
pushkinskaya-37-039.jpg
pushkinskaya-37-040.jpg Moulded flower
pushkinskaya-37-041.jpg Moulded flower

pushkinskaya-37-028.jpg
Hall, cornice

Tambour
pushkinskaya-37-037.jpg Vaults
pushkinskaya-37-035.jpg Semi column capitel
pushkinskaya-37-034.jpg Semi column capitel

pushkinskaya-37-045.jpg
Tambour view from the staircase

Halls at both entrances are identical in design, but the left-side entrance hall is half as longer, due to the large, square tambour, which vault repeats compositionally the hall vault and is supported at the corners with single semicolumns. The staircase itself has an elongated rectangle form, where one of the short sides is replaced with a half-arc and makes a semicircular landing. This is the place where the doors to the apartments are placed (the semicircular landing in right-side entrance is between flights of stairs and apartment doors are located on a right-angled area) with the lift door between, which aperture is significantly smaller.

Above the lift door on each floor there is an octagonal bas relief depicting a centaur. The same bas reliefs, among others, can be seen on the Facades of houses (mentioned above). In the right-side entrance bas reliefs are not available, but door transom remained between the hall and staircase was preserved. Doors of the apartments are restrained according to the total composition, but are decorated with carved «cameos», meanders along the top edge and symmetrical floral compositions along the bottom. The simpler doors, without ornaments, can be seen as well. However, their belonging to the period of Art Nouveau is indubitable.

Left-side entrance, staircase
pushkinskaya-37-033.jpg Front railings flight at the foot of the staircase
pushkinskaya-37-031.jpg Railings scroll at the foot of the stairs
pushkinskaya-37-032.jpg Decorative railings detail
pushkinskaya-37-036.jpg Railings, the general view composition
pushkinskaya-37-019.jpg Railings post
pushkinskaya-37-027.jpg Meander, located between the railing posts
pushkinskaya-37-024.jpg Railings
pushkinskaya-37-020.jpg Railing posts
pushkinskaya-37-022.jpg Railing post
pushkinskaya-37-025.jpg Railings, floral arrangement at the top of the post
pushkinskaya-37-026.jpg Railings, middle of the post decor
pushkinskaya-37-023.jpg Railings, middle of the post decor
pushkinskaya-37-048.jpg Railings, horizontal section

pushkinskaya-37-043.jpg Stained glass fragments
pushkinskaya-37-016.jpg Stained glass, top of the window
pushkinskaya-37-042.jpg Stained glass piece at the bottom of the window

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Bas relief depicting a centaur

pushkinskaya-37-058_1.jpg Apartment doors, various options
pushkinskaya-37-044.jpg The upper part of the door, cameo and meander
pushkinskaya-37-021.jpg Bottom of the door decor

pushkinskaya-37-017.jpg
Staircase ceiling, general view

Entrance railings pattern is relatively restrained, decorated only with floral ornaments on supports. The spaces between supports are devoid of decoration except meander bordering with the railings. All of the major design elements focused on the entrance passage, where a decorative support is supplemented with a large square scroll (in tune with the above-mentioned meander) and palm leaves.

In the windows a large part of stained glass, which has clearly visible images of wreaths and a variety of floral motifs, has been preserved. Simple in composition sash has come to our time without modification.

Staircase ceiling design is very simple and was brought to geometrism, but ceilings in both entrances vary in composition solution. Besides, the room in one of the apartments, where now there are offices of various organizations, keeps a gorgeous cornice directly quoting «stalactitic» ornament.

pushkinskaya-37-029.jpg
«Moresque» stalactitic cornice in a former apartment

Right-side entrance
pushkinskaya-37-055.jpg
Hall view from the staircase

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Door transom leading from the hall to the staircase

pushkinskaya-37-050.jpg
Decorative arch above the niche

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Railings fragment

pushkinskaya-37-051.jpg Window with stained glass remnants
pushkinskaya-37-053.jpg Stained glass, fragment

pushkinskaya-37-054.jpg
Staircase ceiling decoration

There is no doubt that the house was intended for living of rather propertied people: some apartments area reach 170 meters and equipping of the building was carried out on extremely modern lines. The building was equipped with lifts, bathrooms and electric lighting. Housing insolation was also thought out well, including ground floors areas with windows facing the courtyard.

In the post-revolutionary period house gradually lost its residential functions: offices of various city organizations, including Dorprofsoyuz (trade union of railwaymen) and the newspaper «The Black Sea whistle» housed in the former apartments. Later, there was the city executive, so the house was mentioned in a newspaper in midst 50's:

«A meeting of the Odessa City Electoral Commission for elections to the City Council of People's Deputies, which discussed the organizational and technical preparations for the elections, approved work plan and set daily duty in the evening. The Commission is set in the city executive house in 37, Pushkinskaya Street.»

 

 
References and archives

Authors